United Kingdom Country Guide 2022

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom is a sovereign country in Europe, which comprises England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. It is home to both bustling cities and quaint countryside villages, great cultural diversity, and fascinating historical sites; the weather is mostly temperate, but it can get rainy during the winter.

The UK has a flourishing economy, which means large amounts of work opportunities; however, work visas can be pricey, and requirements stringy. While the UK has a high allowance of vacation days, the work-life balance tends to be skewed towards work, with many people working overtime. Healthcare in the UK is widely available and mostly free; there is lots of public transport (although you might need a car when living nearer the countryside), free school education, and strong labour laws.

  • Capital: London
  • Spoken Languages: English (Irish, Welsh, Scottish as minorities)
  • Currency: Great British Pound (GBP)
  • Minimum monthly wage: GBP 1,600 (Gross)

Entry Visa

Citizens of EU/EFTA Member States and Switzerland can enter the UK with an identity card or a valid passport for short stays; other foreign citizens need a visa.

Work Permit / Residence Permit

Foreign nationals wishing to work in the UK must obtain a work visa. To qualify for a long stay visa, the individual has to score at least 70 points through a points-based system; the base requirements are a job offer from a licensed sponsor (20 points), at least medium-level English language skills (10 points), and a job at an appropriate skill level (20 points). The rest  of the points can be made up by earning a salary of at least GBP 25,600, having a job in an official shortage occupation, or having a Ph.D in a STEM subject relevant to the job. Applications can be done online, or via a UK visa application centre.

In addition, the individual must pay an Immigration Health Surcharge (IHS) per year of the visa in order to be able to access the National Health Service in the UK. The cost varies between £470 and 624 per annum.

After arriving in the UK, individuals must collect their Biometric Residence Permit (BRP) within 10 days, and register with the police within 7 days.

Social Security Registration

Individuals should apply to receive a National Insurance Number if they are planning to live and work in the UK; this can be done online.

Working Hours

Average working hours in the UK are calculated over a “reference” period, normally 17 weeks; this means employees can work more than 48 hours one week, as long as the average over 17 weeks is less than 48 hours a week.

Public Holidays

  • 01 January (New Year’s Day)
  • Good Friday (Not a set date, usually March/April)
  • Easter Monday (Not a set date, usually March/April)
  • 1st Monday of May (Early May Bank Holiday)
  • Last Monday of May (Spring Bank Holiday)
  • Last Monday of August (Summer Bank Holiday)
  • 25 December (Christmas Day)
  • 26 December (Boxing Day)

If a public holiday falls on a weekend, the next working day will be a holiday in lieu of the original day.

Holiday Entitlement

Full-time employees working in the UK are entitled to 28 days of paid annual leave per year, which is equivalent to 5.6 working weeks of holiday.

The Supreme Court has confirmed that part time and part year workers employed for a full leave year are entitled to receive 5.6 weeks of paid holiday, irrespective of the number of weeks that they actually work during the leave year and even if that means they are entitled to proportionately more holiday than full-time colleagues.

Other aspects of holiday entitlement

Workers have the right to:

  • get paid for leave
  • Accrue holiday entitlement during maternity, paternity and adoption leave
  • Accrue holiday entitlement while off work sick
  • request holiday at the same time as sick leave

Statutory Sick Pay

Employees may be eligible for Statutory Sick Pay (SSP), which is £99.35 a week for up to 28 weeks.

An employer can offer more if you have a company sick pay scheme but cannot offer less. Company schemes are also called ‘contractual’ or ‘occupational’ sick pay and must be included in an employment contract.

To qualify for Statutory Sick Pay (SSP) employees must:

  • have an employment contract
  • have done some work under their contract
  • have been sick for 4 or more consecutive days (including non-working days) – known as a ‘period of incapacity for work’
  • earn an average of at least £123 per week
  • give the employer notice and proof of illness when needed

Maternity / Paternity leave

  • Maternity: 52 weeks; 26 weeks of ordinary maternity leave, and 26 weeks additional leave. Maximum 11 weeks before date of birth, and compulsory 2 weeks after the birth. First 39 weeks are paid at 90% or regular salary.
  • Paternity: 1-2 weeks within 56 days of the birth. 

You and your partner may be able to get Shared Parental Leave (SPL) and Statutory Shared Parental Pay (ShPP) if you’re:

  • having a baby
  • using a surrogate to have a baby
  • adopting a child
  • fostering a child who you’re planning to adopt

You can share up to 50 weeks of leave and up to 37 weeks of pay between you.

Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP)

Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) is paid for up to 39 weeks. You get: 90% of your average weekly earnings (before tax) for the first 6 weeks. £156.66 or 90% of your average weekly earnings (whichever is lower) for the next 33 weeks.

Termination & Severance

After termination of employment, an employee is entitled to severance pay provided they have worked with the employer for at least two years. The amount of severance pay per year of service depends on the employee’s age during that year.

Being dismissed for misconduct does not count as redundancy, so an employee would not get statutory redundancy pay if this happened.

Age of EmployeeSeverance Pay
Under 220.5 week’s pay per year of service
Over 22 and up to 411 week’s pay per year of service
Over 411.5 week’s pay per year of service

Notice Period

The employer may choose to pay the employee in lieu of a notice period, depending on the circumstances.

Duration of ServiceNotice Period
Over 1 month and up to 2 years1 week
Over 2 years and under 121 week per year of service
Over 12 years12 weeks

The contractual notice period may be longer than the statutory minimum notice period but may not be shorter. A failure to give the required notice is likely to constitute a breach of contract.

Social Security

Employee National Insurance contributions are deducted automatically from the wage (through the PAYE system); employer contributions are paid by the employers themselves. The contribution amount is progressive and depends on the salary.

Monthly Wage (GBP)Employee Contribution (%)Employee Contribution (%)
533 – 7580%0%
758.01 – 1,04815.05%0%
1,048.01 – 4,18915.05%13.25%
4,189.01 +15.05%3.25%

The first GBP 533 per month is non-deductible for employers, and the first GPB 758 is non-deductible for employees.

Pension

UK State pensions are funded by contributions to the National Insurance, and individuals who have made at least 10 years’ worth of contributions are eligible.

Taxation

The UK fiscal year runs from the 6th April until the following 5th April.

Income Tax rates and bands:

England, Wales, Northern Ireland

The table shows the tax rates you pay in each band if you have a standard Personal Allowance of £12,570.

Bond/Taxable Income (GBP)Rate (%)
Personal Allowance (0 – 12,570)0%
Basic Rate (12,571 – 50,270)20%
Higher Rate (50,271 – 150,000)40%
Additional Rate (over 150,000)45%

You can also see the rates and bands without the Personal Allowance. You do not get a Personal Allowance on taxable income over £125,140.

Scotland

The table shows the 2022 to 2023 Scottish Income Tax rates you pay in each band if you have a standard Personal Allowance of £12,570.

Bond/Taxable Income (GBP)Rate (%)
Personal Allowance (Up to 12,570)0%
Starter Rate (12,571 – 14,732)19%
Basic Rate (14,733 – 25,688)20%
Intermediate rate (25,689 – 43,662)21%
Higher rate (43,663 – 150,000)41%
Top rate (over 150,000)46%

You do not get a Personal Allowance on taxable income over £125,140. Personal Allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 earned over £100,000.

Tax Returns

The annual income tax return should be filed by the 5th April for the previous tax year, either online or in paper form. Individuals who only receive income from wages (through the PAYE system) do not need to file a tax return.

Double Taxation

The UK has international double taxation agreements with multiple other countries, which can reduce tax liability on certain incomes, or alleviate the need to pay tax on the same income in both countries.

Health Insurance

All individuals living and working in the UK are entitled to benefits from the National Health Service, which is funded by taxation and contributions from the National Insurance contributions.

Cost of Living

The cost of living in the UK is one of the highest in Western Europe. The estimated monthly cost for a single person is around GBP 2,300 – 2,600, with 1,600 – 2,000 going to rent.


How We Can Help

We provide a full set of services in the United Kingdom allowing corporate clients, recruitment agencies and professional contractors to operate in an optimal manner while ensuring that all local employment obligations are taken care of.

Access Financial offers the following solution in the United Kingdom:

  • Employed/EOR Solution
  • Limited Company Solution

If you would like to discuss how Access Financial can help in the UK, please contact us.

Disclaimer

WE HAVE PREPARED THIS AS A GUIDE ONLY; IT DOES NOT FORM PART OF AN OFFER. PLEASE REQUEST ILLUSTRATIONS BASED ON YOUR SPECIFIC CASE FROM ONE OF OUR SOLUTION MANAGERS.